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Using PHPsuexec with PHP V4 and PHP V5

Why PHPSUEXEC and the security hole of PHP

On most Apache servers, PHP runs as an Apache Module. As such, it runs directly in the user apache, but doesn’t require the execute flag. This means that in order to execute a PHP file, it simply needs to be world readable. The problem is that this allows every other users on the server to read your PHP files!

Allowing other users to read your HTML files is not a problem, since they can be displayed in Internet Explorer. However, PHP files are not readable, they are parsed. Many scripts use a PHP file to store a database username and password. This means that on another server every client could read your PHP files, retrieve your password and access your databases.

Alden Hosting LLC has close this hole by installing an Apache module called PHPsuexec, which executes PHP scripts under your username. Instead of using everyone’s permissions it uses the owner’s permissions. Thus you can change the permissions of your PHP scripts to 0700 or 0500 and still read and execute them. However, these scripts will no longer be accessible to any other users—PHPsuexec will refuse to execute a script if it is world-writable to protect you from someone abusing one of your scripts. All Alden Hosting servers are running phpsuexec.

What is the difference?

Most sites will not be affected with the change, running php as cgi with suexec. Phpsuexec works in much the same way that cgi (perl scripts etc) with suexec does, all applications being run under your account user name UID/GID, rather than in PHP’s case as an apache module, the user “apache”.

This simply means that rules that apply to .cgi + .pl files on your current server, apply to php files also. The maximum permissions permitted on directories and PHP files is 755. Failing to have permissions set to a maximum of 755 on PHP files and their installation paths, will result in a 500 internal server error, when attempting to execute them.

#!/usr/local/bin/php

Using PHPsuexec, the first line of each script "#!/usr/local/bin/php -q" is NOT required.

File Extension for PHP V4 programs

To automatically use PHP V4 with your PHP applications, just end the filename with '.php.' such as index.php.

File Extension for PHP V5 programs

To automatically use PHP V5 with your PHP applications, just end the filename with '.php5.' such as index.php5 .

File & Folder Permissions

The minimum required permission is 500, but if you need to write to that file, you need to also enable the owner-write permission 0700. It is recommended that all your PHP files have chmod permission 0500 or 0700. The group and everyone permissions can be left to 0.

PHPsuexec also validates the directories in which PHP files are located. A PHP file cannot be executed in a directory that is group-writable or world-writable. However, in order to access a directory, it must be world-executable, which is safe to do. So folders/directories containing PHP files should have permissions 0755. Read/Write/Execute for the Owner and Read/Execute for Group and Everyone.

Folder Permissions for your DocRoot "/html"

If you place your PHP applications directly under your /html folder, (such as index.php) you MUST change the directory permissions of /html. Our default directory permissions for your "/html" folder is "775" which allows your GROUP to Read/Write/Execute. This MUST be changed to "755" (Group READ/NO-WRITE/Execute)

777 – Do I need directories set to this? My install script says that I do.

No, you do not need to have directories or files set to 777, even if your installation documents tell you that you do. Permissions of 700 will work in the same way – Scripts owned by your account user UID/GID will be able to write to your files, the same way that they can running under apache with 777 permissions.

You cannot manipulate the php.ini settings with .htaccess when running PHP as cgi/phpsuexec.

If you have php applications / scripts that have directories set to 777, (required to write to them under php/apache module), they would need to be changed. Also we would need to change ownerships of all files owned by user “apache” to the user name UID/GID for your account.

htaccess

You cannot manipulate the php.ini settings with .htaccess when running PHP as cgi/phpsuexec. If you are using .htaccess with php_value entries within it, you would receive an internal server 500 error when attempting to access the scripts. This is because PHP is no longer running as an Apache module and Apache will not handle those directives any longer. All PHP values should be removed from your .htaccess files to avoid this issue. Placing a php.ini file in its place will solve this issue. (Please see below.)

Default settings, I need Zend Optimizer or php to run with different options than the servers default settings, can I do this?

The server default settings with php.ini may restrict certain applications, it is possible to modify the settings and how php will run on your account, on a per directory basis. If you have an application that requires for example :-

register_globals = On

Then by creating a file named php.ini within the directory that the script is located within, with the entry register_globals = On would allow you to run that script with your settings.

If you also require say Zend Optimizer to be installed for your application, you would have :-

register_globals = On

zend_optimizer.optimization_level=15

zend_extension=“/usr/local/Zend/lib/ZendOptimizer.so”

You may copy the other variables from the phpinfo page as they appear within it and modify the settings as required for your scripts.

Some important relevant default PHP values are as follows:-

register_globals = Off

register_argc_argv = Off

safe_mode = On

magic_quotes_gpc = Off

All other settings can be viewed from your server’s phpinfo.php page.

Quick trouble shooter. . . . . HELP my php script doesn’t work or I have an error message

1. Check that the PHP script that you are attempting to execute has permissions of no more than 755. 500 will work just fine normally, this is not something that will need to be changed in most cases.

2. Check that the chmod permissions for the folder that the script resides in are set to a maximum of 755. This also includes folders that the script would need to have access to also.

3. Check that the files are owned by you i.e. not owned by user ‘apache’. Certain applications having been run under PHP as an Apache module, may have files owned by the Apache user – In that case, submit a helpdesk ticket for the file ownerships to be changed.

4. Check that you do not have an .htaccess file with php_values within it. They will cause a 500 Internal server error, when attempting to execute the script. The php_values will need to be removed from your .htaccess file and a php.ini put in its place, containing the PHP directives as explained above.

 
 
 

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